Wednesday, September 12, 2012

A brief summary of what Counter Reformation destroyed in the XX century

>

 "..............
Albert of Prussia (German: Albrecht; Latin: Albertus) (17 May 1490 – 20 March 1568) was the 37th and last sovereign Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights and, after converting to Lutheranism, the first duke of the Duchy of Prussia, which was the first state to adopt the Lutheran faith and Protestantism as the official state religion. Albert proved instrumental in the political spread of Protestantism in its early stage.
Because Albert was a member of the Brandenburg-Ansbach branch of the House of Hohenzollern, it had been hoped that his election as Grand Master would reverse the decline of the Teutonic Knights since 1410; Duke Frederick of Saxony of the House of Wettin had been elected for the same reason. Instead, Albert's secularization of the Prussian territories of the Order eventually led to the inheritance of the Duchy of Prussia by the Margraviate of Brandenburg.
Albert's titles (on his proclamation of 1561 in Königsberg) were: Albert the Elder, Margrave of Brandenburg in Prussia, Stettin in Pomerania, Duke of the Kashubians, and Wends, Burgrave of Nuremberg, and Count of Rügen etc..[citation needed]
................."










"........“See,” Dad said, pointing to a particularly beer-bloated skinhead who was waving the Imperial War Ensign while bellowing inarticulately, “they can’t display their Hakenkreuz so they’ve hijacked our flag, and here they are, dragging it through the mud. It’s going to be up to your generation to take it back and restore its honour”........"

From: Where are the Prussians? 

by Andrew M Bergman



"..........The reestablishment of the Jewish community in 1671

Today's Jewish community dates back to 1671, when several Jewish families came to Berlin. They were expelled in 1670 by Leopold I in Vienna. Since Brandenburg daniederlag after the Thirty Years War, the Great Elector Friedrich Wilhelm sought to immigrants into the country to contribute to its reconstruction. In addition to the Huguenots, who came into the country from 1685, however, he allowed her to much worse conditions on 21 May 1671 also 50 wealthy Jewish families to settle in Brandenburg. The privilege of Frederick William to allow the Jews to settle in the whole marrow and assigned them to the field of trade, the guilds of them remained locked. Besides the usual taxes every Jewish family had to pay an annual nominal fee. Only one child per family was allowed to settle in the marrow; to get a marriage license, had an extra fee to be paid. The nascent Jewish communities were allowed to hire a teacher and a kosher butcher and create a cemetery, but the construction of synagogues was temporarily banned.
..............."

URL: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/J%C3%BCdisches_Leben_in_Berlin#Die_Neugr.C3.BCndung_der_J.C3.BCdischen_Gemeinde_1671


Friday, July 20, 2012


Where are the Prussians? 

 URL: http://kaliningrad-eu.blogspot.it/2012/07/where-are-prussians.html

 

by Andrew M Bergman
Growing up in the latter half of the 20th Century, depending on where you happened to be in the world, it was often neither popular nor PC if you were saddled with a niggling identity that included the historically taboo epithet “Prussian”.
Recent online debates on the subject have added it to the agenda in the minds of many, across the full spectrum of the political landscape. In 2012, anyone prepared to offer a cut-and-dried answer to that question is either a fool or historically illiterate.
From a purely de jure historical perspective, Prussia was effectively abolished in 1932 and ceased to exist in 1947. Therefore, while many born after the latter date may claim to be “Prussian” by clear ancestry, descending from the original Prussian tribes has long ceased to be a prerequisite.

The first time I heard the term “Prussian” was from my father who, as a liberal Jew fled from his birthplace of Königsberg to the Netherlands in 1933 and thence to South Africa in 1936. He then served in Her Majesty’s South African Forces in WWII in North Africa, Italy and Palestine. He was at pains (for obvious reasons) to de-emphasise his “German-ness” and officially removed the second “n” from Bergmann. “Bergman” is comfortably Dutch or Swedish.
He didn’t talk much of his experiences during the war, but one conversation – probably related over the chessboard at which he usually whipped my ass – is burned onto my brain.
While his English was near-native in its correctness, Dad always retained a German accent. He never went into any detail, but related how, while moving between Prisoners of War after Montgomery’s occupation of Tobruk, he encountered Afrika Korps men who had been at school or college with him. Predictably, during the war and thereafter, comrades and friends had asked him how he felt about “a German fighting against the Germans”. He had a standard answer that might sound glib, but while apologists might dismiss the semantics of it, it was uttered with profound conviction and had a deep impact on my own feeling of identity: “I was never a German fighting the Germans. I was only ever Prussian fighting the nazis”. And then if anyone pointed out: “A Prussian Jew,” he would be quick to retort: “I prefer to consider myself a Jewish Prussian.”

specially after the war, while the fact that the nazis (probably just like the Afrika Korps, occasionally represented by men who were at school or college with him) had herded his mother and father (who carried the rank of Colonel and held the Iron Cross 1st Class) and countless uncles, aunts and cousins into the gas chambers of Auschwitz, Majdanek, Trebinka, Sobibor etc. as “Jews” understandably prompted him to reject any vestige of a “German” identity, down to the point of never teaching or speaking the language to me. Somehow, though, he seemed to  have felt no less “Prussian”. As a child of the 1960s, the distinction was to lie in ambush until after I’d fought my own war in Africa.

It was about two hours, fifteen minutes and 24 seconds into my compulsory military service in South Africa that I realised the benefit of having a Prussian father with several generations of hussars in the family tree. I used to joke as a teenager: “My father’s not my father, he’s my Sergeant Major.” Suffice to say that he’d taught me to temper my rebellious nature, taught me to say Yes Sir! convincingly so I took to military life a fish to water.
Towards the end of his life, by which time I was a cadet reporter on the local daily with far less reason to temper any rebelliousness, we happened to be watching the TV news together when an item appeared showing some or other neo-nazi manifestation in Germany. Groups of leather-clad yobs shouted fascist slogans, while carefully avoiding actual nazi chants (which would get them arrested immediately in Germany today) and not displaying any swastikas or SS runes for the same reason. “See,” Dad said, pointing to a particularly beer-bloated skinhead who was waving the Imperial War Ensign while bellowing inarticulately, “they can’t display their Hakenkreuz so they’ve hijacked our flag, and here they are, dragging it through the mud. It’s going to be up to your generation to take it back and restore its honour”.
During WWI, the similarity between the British White Ensign and the German War Ensign
caused so many "friendly fire" incidents in the poor light of the English Channel and the
North Sea that Royal Navy ships took to flying the Red (Merchant) Ensign. 


Dad’s story is one of countless similar ones that live on in the aural history of individuals, but alas, mainstream history is written (at best tinged and at worst biased) by the victors, undeniably for the masses. Those who have studied history will appreciate that “Prussia” has, for worryingly illogical reasons, become (erroneously) associated with an undereducated fascist minority and thence the whipping boy blamed for WWI and much of the nationalistic militarism that resulted in WWII. The example of the likes of Claus Von Stauffenberg (a Schwabian with Prussian roots) is the exception that proves the rule.
Then, some history is selectively and retrospectively un-written. It’s seldom prominently mentioned (usually tucked away in paragraph 51 of page 6 of chapter 17) in (English-language) accounts of the Battle of Waterloo: The fact that Wellington’s victory was by no means secure until the arrival of the eccentric (code for: mad as a bucket of frogs) and brilliant (the two so often cohabit) General Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher with fresh PRUSSIAN troops! Curiously, the Hanoverians and Hessians etc. who fought suffer no such violence at the hands of post-1914 historical editors.
But the question remains: Who are the Prussians today? For unless you are deluded, you can’t wipe-away the identity of an entire nation with the stroke of a (un)diplomatic pen.
Feeling “Prussian” is complex, especially considering the water - and considerable quantities of blood - that have flowed under the proverbial bridge in our name.
And as always, the facts are far more subtle.
Prussia’s enlightened “founding Father”, Emperor Frederick the Great – arguably the first monarch in history to achieve a state of inward military preparedness without outward bellicosity – who composed the Hohensalzburger Marsch to commemorate his (militarily unpredicted) victory over the Austrians – must have done double-back-flips in his grave when he saw what was perpetrated from ’33 to ’45 for “Germanic supremacy”, often “in his name” by the cohorts of a (very dangerous) little Austrian corporal.
In reality, Emperor Frederick was a consummate composer, an able musician (specifically on the flute) and a committed Freemason who, repeatedly in his many writings which should be read in the vernacular of the zeitgeist, extolled the benefits of multiculturalism and raised questions that Western Europe and the World are still wrestling with today. In basic terms, he asserted that a monarch (leader) should not show clear allegiance to one or other political or religious group, lest it alienate the others. And the strength of an Empire is in its diversity.


So in 2012, who is a Prussian? You’ll get different answers from anyone you ask. It has interesting commonalities (and comparable infinity in its answers) with the questions: who is an Englishman/Frenchman (perish the thought we open the can of dragon larvae that’s labelled: “who is a Jew?)
So, is a Prussian someone who can trace his/her ancestry back to the pre-Germanic Prussian tribes? Undeniably and quintessentially yes!
Is a Prussian a descendant of the Germans, Poles, Balts etc. who either settled or were “resettled” there over the centuries and came to call it home? Yes!
Is a Prussian someone with Russian ancestry who was born in Kaliningrad yet strives for modern western-looking democratic ideals? Yes!
Is a Prussian someone whose philosophy of multicultural harmony and mutual cultural respect mirrors that of Emperor Frederick the Great? Certainly!
When considering the above, the only conclusion I can come to is that in 2012, whoever considers themselves to be a Prussian must be embraced as a Prussian. When they return from the diaspora of the 20th Century (don’t expect them to come back in droves, at least not initially), most will still “look Prussian”, but it would be naïve to ignore that East Prussians cast far and wide will certainly have resulted in some who might have an Asian, African or other ethnic “look”, while still nurturing a sincere and zealous East Prussian loyalty and/or identity.
History has made ethnicity irrelevant – you can no more judge the quality of a human being from the colour of their skin than you can from the colour of their eyes, or the books they hold sacred. Nor can I hold any man guilty of the crimes his father might have committed against mine. We can't look backwards 'cause like it or not, none of us is going that way. So In my book:

1)      Whoever would go to the barricades for democratic freedom of self-determination for what Moscow calls the “Oblast of Kaliningrad” is a Prussian.

2)      Whoever would step forward to govern (or just to contribute) once the occupation of Moscow is lifted (or if necessarily overthrown), that is a Prussian!

3)    In the spirit of Frederik the Great, we will keep our gloves clean to extend the hand of friendship to all who will take it, but we will keep our swords sharp to defend ourselves against those who will not.
Count me in on all of the above.
Ich bin ein Preuße, kennt ihr meine Farben?
  
*   *   *

 Thursday, September 6, 2012

The author of 1662 and 1664 EDICT OF TOLERANCE among the ancestors of Ulrich von Hassell 

http://avles-theamberpath.blogspot.it/2012/09/the-author-of-1662-and-1664-edict-of.html



Sunday, September 2, 2012

The cardinal Wiseman inspired by the Sands of Kunersdorf and the Miracle at the House of Brandenburg? 

http://avles-theamberpath.blogspot.it/2012/09/the-cardinal-wiseman-inspired-by-sands.html



Thursday, September 6, 2012

The author of 1662 and 1664 EDICT OF TOLERANCE among the ancestors of Ulrich von Hassell

>




 



".....He [Albrecht von Stosch, uncle of the mother of Ulrich von Hassel] came from the branches of an old Silesian noble family, who broke away from the bloodline, and produced a number of efficient Reformed theologians . Among other belonged to the famous chaplain of the Great Elector, Bartholomew von Stosch. The grandfather of Albrecht von Stosch was chaplain in Berlin......".

    [From German page of Wikipedia on  Albrecht von Stosch - see below in References the original text]
 
 
     Frederick Willhelm I Elector of Brandenburg and his Edict of Potsdam:



 
 The Edict of Potsdam (German: Edikt von Potsdam) was a proclamation issued by Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia, in Potsdam on October 29, 1685, as a response to the revocation of the Edict of Nantes by the Edict of Fontainebleau.
In October 1685, King Louis XIV of France issued the Edict of Fontainebleau, which was part of a program of persecution that closed Huguenot churches and schools. This policy escalated the harassment of religious minorities since the dragonnades created in 1681 in order to intimidate Huguenots into converting to Catholicism. As a result, a large number of Protestants — estimates range from 210,000 to 900,000 — left France over the next two decades........

[In relation to the increase of population, such numbers should correspond to those "between twelve and fourteen million people, ethnic Germans," .....(see below References) - note of avles]

    ......... On October 29, 1685, Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg issued the Edict of Potsdam, which encouraged oppressed Huguenots to immigrate to his nation by offering them numerous benefits. The edict gave French Protestants safe passage to Brandenburg-Prussia, offered them tax-free status for ten years, and allowed them to hold church services in their native French. [1] As a result, Potsdam became a center of European immigration, its religious freedom attracting not only French Protestants but also the persecuted of Russia, the Netherlands, and Bohemia. Thus, the immigrants to the Electorate of Brandenburg stabilized and greatly improved the country's economy following the destructive religious wars that had swept through Europe in the seventeenth-century.
......."
 URL:   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edict_of_Potsdam
     
      Lutherans feared to be substituted in the key roles by the Calvinists. Below,  Lutherans plundering the homes of Calvinists in Leipzig, towards the end of XVII century (about Edict of Potsdam years):




    Frederick had to keep united Protestant Prussia in front of the religious enemy, and twenty/twentyfive years before the Edict of Potsdam he issued the.....:

"........The Brandenburg Edict was issued in 1664 by Elector Friedrich Wilhelm I and governed relations between the Lutheran and Reformed denominations in the country from the Lords.

     The edict forbade the Lutherans and the Reformed (Calvinist) in
particular theologians, to practice their, public criticism to the teachings of each other faiths from the pulpit .
     The Confessions of the Evangelical Lutheran Church were restricted in their validity concerning the demarcations with the Calvinist doctrine. Effectively so that the validity of the Formula of Concord was lifted.

The edict of the Reformed elector saw a part of the Lutheran theologians at a disadvantage of his own party and made bitter opposition.
...
.......(.......)......
 Decisive here is the program of the Heidelberg Reformed David Pareus  with the aim of create a bridge over religious antagonisms between Reformed and Lutherans, to create a common front against the Catholic Church.
....."

[see below REFERENCES]



    How much was the Brandenburg Edict important in to keep united Protestant Prussia? 
    Creating a "wall" (in XX century  allusively and sarcastically replied at the end of WWII by the "Berlin's Wall" and the "Two Germany") in front of that third subject who always hoped "to build his fortunes" with the fratricidal wars inside the Protestant field?



    Chaplain of the Great Elector, Bartholomew von Stosch, [one among the ancestors of Ulrich von Hassel], author of the Brandenburg Edict :
       Stosch: St. Bartholomew, chaplain of Brandenburg court [kurbrandenburgischer chaplain] and Consistory, born in Strehlen in Silesia on 12 September 1604, on 5 † (?) In March 1686 in Berlin. - St. [St. from now stands for "Stosch" - a.] came from a branch of the widespread Silesian noble family as von Stosch. His father was rector of the town school in Strehlen, where St. enjoyed his first training, then the then quickly frequent the blossomed Schönaichianum School in Bytom. As this institution declined  as a result of the horrors of the Thirty Years' War, he moved to continue his theological studies, at the University of Frankfurt on the Oder [five kilometres west to the Sands of Kunersdorf - a.], where he found through the agency of one of his former teachers support and favorable reception in the home of the professor of theology Conrad Bergius. This recommended him after completing his studies to his brother, the kurbrandenburgischen chaplain  Johann Bergius, through whose intercession he received a private tutor in a Prussian aristocratic home. Several years he was here active and won many relationships among the Prussian nobility. Most strongly on his training had the relation, into which he entered with Achatius IIl., Viscount of Dohna. To the in-depth education and the serious religious life direction he owed many  stimulus. With the son of Erbhauptmanns v. Gilgenburg He then toured the Netherlands, France and [461] England. In the year 1640 he returned to Prussia and was after a short stay with his patron, the Earl of Castle Dohna, pastor Pilten in Livonia.

     There he knew the Reformed confession and was ordained by the Bohemian Brethren in Lissa, as well by of the Lutheran clergy in Prussia. Already in the year 1643 he was appointed on the proposal of the Electress Elisabeth Charlotte mother, as chaplain of Frederick William to the cathedral in Cölln a.d . Spree. As he also simultaneously came to Elbing and Marienburg  he preferred  at Easter 1644 to take service in the court of Brandenburg. Soon he was one of the immediate vicinity of the elector. In the year 1645 he served as chaplain busy in Königsberg in Prussia and accompanied the sister of the elector, Luise Charlotte, in her marriage with the Duke of Courland in their new homes to Riga, where he stayed for some time in order to build a Reformed worship [church - a.]. Of utmost importance for the future, it was then that he was in the year 1647 called to Cleve as dienstthuender (?) chaplain of  the court. Here he came into close contact with the just married Electress Louise, who then kept him for some time of her life as a pastor, as she consistently agreed with his religious views . A first proof of the elector's confidence was the fact that the 1648 St. baptized natives Prince Wilhelm Heinrich. In the many afflictions which befell the royal family, he just did not let to lack spiritual consolation. So when Prince Frederick was born, St. baptized him  also.  

     His relations with the Electress, whom he accompanied on his designed to more intimate, and thus it was that in 1659 he was appointed as successor to the late Johann Bergius in the consistory. In this position, he then exercised under the direction of the Senior President Otto von Schwerin, a significant influence on the religious policy of the Elector. The electoral edicts of 1662 and 1664, which forbade to the Lutheran the critic to the Reformers [i.e. to the Calvinists - a.]  flowed from his pen. Also in the colloquy, which Frederick William had to begin in autumn 1662, he sought to wrest from the Lutheran clergy the concession that they agree in the important points with the Reformed doctrine. He intervened from distance different times in the then heavily in Mark surging dispute between Lutheran and Reformed. In the "Summa Homer report of the märckischen reformed churches concordance with others in and outside Germany Reformed congregations" (Berlin, 1666), he led one to prove that the Brandenburg Church with others reformed in teaching agrees, and that the electoral regulations only had the purpose that no private opinions, but only overt symbols were used as a basis for doctrinal disputes.  


     This scripture to this was a literary querelle that soon coincided with a polemic against his colleague Andrew Fromm, who was deposed in Brandenburg and went to Wittenberg. This last dispute raises Stosch's character not in a favorable light. In the year 1668 he took part in the irenic negotiations with the Scot John Duraeus in part [WS 1]. Since when  in 1667 the Princess Louise, whom St. held a magnificent funeral oration, died, and Otto von Schwerin then 1669 of spiritual matters was dismissed, removed his influence on politics, particularly as the new  wife of the elector, Dorothea Holstein, with his religious beliefs he did not agree. In the consistory he had during the seventies,  in addition the monitoring and evaluation of the theological writings of the Mark's clergy  sent to to the publication,  to hold the conferences, which were common with newly appointed ministers. He now had been considered earlier [462] as the main opponent of the Lutheran, he came because of these conferences, especially in Mißcredit, and poured in on him at the elector complaints especially from the stands. The last time St. significantly appears is in 1682 at the Union negotiations of Bishop Christopher Rojas Spinola. Ill-health forced him to resign in 1684 from consistory. His death is not  documented. He was buried on 14 März 1686th - A series of sermons (including funeral orations) are printed get from him, but very rarely. Some of them, especially the funeral sermon for the Princess Louise deserve to still be read today. In other Reformed teaching points are discussed in consideration of the circumstances at that time. - Of his children. are the Royal. Prussian Privy Councillor and Secretary of State Frederick William St., and the Royal. Councillor, privy chamberlain and the Black Eagle Treasurer William Henry St. known, they took the needle again.

    See Sexton, Old and New Berlin I, 162 ff Berlin 1737th - My essay: Bartholomew Stosch, kurbrandenburgischer chaplain in research on Brandenb. and Prussian. History VI, 91 ff Leipzig 1893rd


URL:  http://de.wikisource.org/wiki/ADB:Stosch,_Bartholom%C3%A4us

[text google translated and then re-fined by me but in a very "fast and furious" way. I hope you understand, "I have no resources, no money, no time,..." etc.]


 *   *   *
.....and all this destroyed, as promised at least since 1850 by a fatwa of Rome:

   
Sunday, September 2, 2012

The cardinal Wiseman inspired by the Sands of Kunersdorf and the Miracle at the House of Brandenburg? 

 http://avles-theamberpath.blogspot.it/2012/09/the-cardinal-wiseman-inspired-by-sands.html



Tuesday, September 4, 2012

The Jesuitical assassination of the Protestant Prussia heritage 

 http://avles-theamberpath.blogspot.it/2012/09/the-jesuitical-assassination-of.html



 
-------------------------------REFERENCES:
Top images:
    1) Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg;
    2) Berlin Palace, place of the religious talk"The Berlin Religious Colloquy was a colloquy between Lutheran and Reformed theologians of Brandenburg, with the aim of approaching the two Protestant denominations. It was called by the Great Elector of 8 September 1662 until 29 In June 1663 in Berlin, Schloss Cölln [1] under the direction of Brandenburg First Minister Otto von Schwerin. After 17 sessions, it ceased without results." - URL: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berliner_Religionsgespr%C3%A4ch
    3) Albrecht von Stosch;
    4) Ulrich von Hassell.

----------------------------------------------

Re-edited 07 Sept 2012: I painted in red the words: "[Albrecht von Stosch, uncle of the mother of Ulrich von Hassel]"

"......Von Hassell descended from old landed nobility. He was born the son of First Lieutenant Ulrich von Hassell and Margarete (born von Stosch).........(..........)......His mother was a niece of Albrecht von Stosch, the Prussian Minister of State and chief of the Admiralität......."

The above ones are excerpts from Wikipedia German page on Ulrich von Hassel quoted in the previous my:

http://avles-theamberpath.blogspot.it/2012/09/the-jesuitical-assassination-of.html

----------------------------------------------

 "between twelve and fourteen million people, ethnic Germans," [and Protestants]:

 Saturday, September 1, 2012

Planned Long Before The War Came To An End...

Original German text: 

"........Er stammte aus einem Zweige eines alten schlesischen Adelsgeschlechts, der den Adel ablegte und eine Reihe tüchtiger reformierter Theologen hervorgebracht hat. Unter anderen gehörte dazu der bekannte Hofprediger des Großen Kurfürsten, Bartholomäus v. Stosch. Auch der Großvater Albrechts v. Stosch war Hofprediger in Berlin. ........."  


 ------------------------------------------------------

"......Frederick William (German: Friedrich Wilhelm) (16 February 1620 – 29 April 1688) was Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia – and thus ruler of Brandenburg-Prussia – from 1640 until his death. A member of the House of Hohenzollern, he is popularly known as "The Great Elector"[1] (German: Der Große Kurfürst) because of his military and political prowess. Frederick William was a staunch pillar of the Calvinist faith, associated with the rising commercial class. He saw the importance of trade and promoted it vigorously. His shrewd domestic reforms gave Prussia a strong position in the post-Westphalia political order of north-central Europe, setting Prussia up for elevation from duchy to kingdom, achieved under his successor.............."

URL:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_William,_Elector_of_Brandenburg

 -------------------------------------------------------
 "Toleranzedikt (Brandenburg)"

Stosch was important key in to make peace between Lutherans and Calvinists ("Reformers"). The arrival of the persecuted Calvinists from France caused troubled as the Lutherans feared to be putted aside. See:

German:  http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toleranzedikt_%28Brandenburg%29

English doesn't exist. But it exists for the Edict of Potsdam:

German: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edikt_von_Potsdam

English: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edict_of_Potsdam


--------------------------------
 Original text: http://de.wikisource.org/wiki/ADB:Stosch,_Bartholom%C3%A4us

ADB:Stosch, Bartholomäus

 Stosch: Bartholomäus St., kurbrandenburgischer Hofprediger und Consistorialrath, geboren in Strehlen in Schlesien am 12. September 1604, † am 5. (?) März 1686 in Berlin. – St. entstammte einem Zweige des in Schlesien weitverbreiteten Adelsgeschlechtes derer v. Stosch. Sein Vater war Rector der Stadtschule in Strehlen, in der St. seine erste Ausbildung genoß, um dann das damals schnell erblühte Gymnasium Schönaichianum in Beuthen a. d. O. zu besuchen. Als diese Anstalt infolge der Wirren des dreißigjährigen Krieges zurückging, bezog er zur Fortsetzung seiner theologischen Studien die Universität Frankfurt a. d. O., wo er durch Vermittlung eines seiner früheren Lehrer Unterstützung und wohlwollende Aufnahme in dem Hause des Professors der Theologie Konrad Bergius fand. Dieser empfahl ihn auch nach Vollendung seiner Studien an seinen Bruder, den kurbrandenburgischen Hofprediger Johann Bergius, durch dessen Vermittlung er eine Hauslehrerstelle in einem preußischen adligen Hause erhielt. Verschiedene Jahre hindurch war er hier thätig und gewann mancherlei Beziehungen unter dem preußischen Adel. Am nachhaltigsten auf seine Ausbildung wirkte der Verkehr, in den er mit Achatius IIl., Burggrafen von Dohna, trat. Der tiefgehenden Bildung und der ernsten religiösen Lebensrichtung desselben verdankte er vielerlei Anregung. Mit dem Sohne des Erbhauptmanns v. Gilgenburg bereiste er dann die Niederlande, Frankreich und [461] England. Im J. 1640 kehrte er nach Preußen zurück und wurde nach kurzem Aufenthalt bei seinem Gönner, dem Burggrafen von Dohna, Pfarrer zu Pilten in Livland. Da er zu dem reformirten Bekenntniß sich bekannte, so ließ er sich lieber von den böhmischen Brüdern in Lissa, als von der lutherischen Geistlichkeit in Preußen ordiniren. Bereits im J. 1643 wurde er auf Vorschlag der Kurfürstin-Mutter Elisabeth Charlotte, als Hofprediger von Friedrich Wilhelm an den Dom in Cölln a. d. Spree berufen. Wenn er auch gleichzeitig nach Elbing und Marienburg kommen konnte, so zog er es doch vor, zu Ostern 1644 in die kurbrandenburgischen Dienste zu treten. Bald gehörte er zu der unmittelbaren Umgebung des Kurfürsten. Im J. 1645 war er als Hofprediger in Königsberg in Pr. thätig und begleitete die Schwester des Kurfürsten, Luise Charlotte, nach ihrer Vermählung mit dem Herzog von Kurland in ihre neue Heimath nach Riga, wo er einige Zeit blieb und einen reformirten Gottesdienst einrichtete. Von größter Bedeutung für seine Zukunft war es dann, daß er im J. 1647 nach Cleve als dienstthuender Hofprediger berufen wurde. Hier trat er zuerst in nähere Beziehung zu der jung vermählten Kurfürstin Luise, die ihn dann zeit ihres Lebens als Seelsorger behielt, da sie mit seinen religiösen Ansichten durchweg übereinstimmte. Ein erster Beweis des kurfürstlichen Vertrauens war es, daß St. den 1648 gebornen Prinzen Wilhelm Heinrich taufte. In den mancherlei Trübsalen, welche der kurfürstlichen Familie widerfuhren, hat gerade er es nicht an seelsorgerischem Trost fehlen lassen. Als dann Prinz Friedrich geboren wurde, taufte ihn St. ebenfalls. Seine Beziehungen zur Kurfürstin, die er auf ihren Reisen begleitete, gestalteten sich immer inniger, und dadurch kam es, daß er 1659 zum Nachfolger des verstorbenen Johann Bergius in das Consistorium berufen wurde. In dieser Stellung hat er dann unter Leitung des Oberpräsidenten Otto v. Schwerin einen bedeutenden Einfluß auf die Kirchenpolitik des Kurfürsten ausgeübt. Die kurfürstlichen Edicte von 1662 und 1664, welche den Lutherischen das Verketzern der Reformirten untersagten, sind aus seiner Feder geflossen. Auch bei dem Religionsgespräch, welches Friedrich Wilhelm im Herbst 1662 beginnen ließ, suchte er der lutherischen Geistlichkeit das Zugeständniß abzuringen, daß sie in den wichtigen Punkten mit der reformirten Lehre übereinstimme. Des ferneren griff er verschiedenfach in den damals in der Mark heftig wogenden Streit zwischen Lutherischen und Reformirten publicistisch ein. Im „Summarischen Bericht von der märckischen reformirten Kirchen Einträchtigkeit mit andern in und ausser Deutschland reformirten Gemeinen“ (Berlin 1666) führte er einmal den Nachweis, daß die märkische Kirche mit andern reformirten in der Lehre übereinstimme, und daß die kurfürstlichen Verordnungen lediglich den Zweck hätten, daß nicht Privatmeinungen, sondern nur offenkundige Symbole als Grundlage für dogmatische Streitigkeiten genommen würden. An diese Schrift knüpfte sich eine litterarische Fehde, die bald mit einer Polemik gegen seinen Amtsgenossen Andreas Fromm, der in Brandenburg abgesetzt und nach Wittenberg gegangen war, zusammenfiel. Gerade dieser letzte Streit wirft auf Stosch’s Charakter kein günstiges Licht. Im J. 1668 nahm er an den irenischen Verhandlungen mit dem Schotten Johannes Duraeus[WS 1] theil. Da bereits 1667 die Kurfürstin Luise, der St. eine herrliche Leichenpredigt hielt, gestorben war, und Otto v. Schwerin dann 1669 der geistlichen Angelegenheiten enthoben wurde, nahm sein Einfluß auf die Politik ab, zumal auch die neu heimgeführte Gattin des Kurfürsten, Dorothea von Holstein, mit seinen religiösen Ansichten nicht übereinstimmte. Im Consistorium hatte er während der siebziger Jahre neben der Ueberwachung und Begutachtung der von märkischen Geistlichen zum Druck bestimmten theologischen Schriften, namentlich die Conferenzen abzuhalten, welche mit neuberufenen Geistlichen üblich waren. Hatte er nun schon früher [462] als der Hauptgegner der Lutherischen gegolten, so kam er wegen dieser Conferenzen besonders in Mißcredit, und liefen über ihn bei dem Kurfürsten Beschwerden namentlich von den Ständen ein. Zum letzten Male tritt St. bedeutsam im J. 1682 bei den Unionsverhandlungen des Bischofs Christoph Rojas von Spinola hervor. Kränklichkeit zwang ihn 1684 sein Amt im Consistorium niederzulegen. Sein Todestag steht nicht urkundlich fest. Begraben wurde er am 14. März 1686. – Eine ganze Reihe von Predigten (namentlich Leichenreden) sind von ihm gedruckt erhalten, doch höchst selten. Einige derselben, besonders die Leichenpredigt für die Kurfürstin Luise, verdienen auch heute noch gelesen zu werden. In anderen werden reformirte Lehrpunkte in Rücksicht auf die damaligen Zeitverhältnisse erörtert. – Von seinen Kindern. sind der königl. preußische Hofrath und Geheime Staatssecretär Friedrich Wilhelm St., und der königl. Hofrath, Geheimer Kämmerer und des Schwarzen Adlerordens Schatzmeister Wilhelm Heinrich St. bekannter, sie nahmen den Adel wieder an.

    Vgl. Küster, Altes und neues Berlin I, 162 ff. Berlin 1737. – Mein Aufsatz: Bartholomäus Stosch, kurbrandenburgischer Hofprediger in Forschungen zur brandenb. u. preuß. Geschichte VI, 91 ff. Leipzig 1893.

Hugo Landwehr.

Anmerkungen (Wikisource)

    ↑ John Durie (1596–1680), schottischer presbyterianischer Theologe.
 

Tuesday, September 4, 2012

The Jesuitical assassination of the Protestant Prussia heritage

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Why the Nazi cohorts of Wladimir Ledochowsky had to assassinate  Ulrich von Hassell:




"................Ulrich von Hassell (12 November 1881 – 8 September 1944) was a German diplomat during World War II. A member of the German Resistance against German dictator Adolf Hitler, Hassell was executed in the aftermath of the failed July 20 plot.
...............

Von Hassell descended from old landed nobility. He was born the son of First Lieutenant Ulrich von Hassell and Margarete (born von Stosch).


coat of arms of the von Hassell family
His mother was a niece of Albrecht von Stosch, the Prussian Minister of State and chief of the Admiralität. She was furthermore the great granddaughter of Henriette Vogel whom Heinrich von Kleist had accompanied in November, 1811 in suicide. Ulrich v. Hassell has not excluded later that his ever growing admiration for the writer has been increased by this fact.
His grandfather on the mother's side was the godson of count August Neidhardt von Gneisenau. This explains the special interest of Hassell in the Prussian reformer which found its expression in some publications, among other things.
His grandfather on his father's side, Christian von Hassell, born in 1805, chose a lawyer's career, an exception in their old Hanoverian family. Their members had exclusively been landowners or had taken a career in the military.
Ulrich von Hassell is also the grandfather of Agostino von Hassell, a noted author on military and war history; and of Corrado Pirzio-Biroli former civil servant of the European Commission and ambassador of the EU to Austria during the Austrian European Union membership referendum, 1994.[1].
 ................."

[yes, please, close the eye on that sad EU-nephew linked with a Jesuit-linked family of Friuli.... see in link below in ABE blog]




".......
Albrecht von Stosch (20 April 1818 - 29 February 1896) was a German General der Infanterie and Admiral who served as first Chief of the newly created Imperial German admiralty from 1872 to 1883.
Born in Koblenz, he was a cousin of Hans Stosch-Sarrasani, founder of the circus called Sarrasani.
There is an island in Chile named after him, Isla Stosch.
.........."




".....August Wilhelm Antonius Graf[1] Neidhardt von Gneisenau (27 October 1760 – 23 August 1831) was a Prussian field marshal. He was a prominent figure in the reform of the Prussian military and the War of Liberation.......
Gneisenau was born at Schildau in the Electorate of Saxony. He was the son of a Saxon lieutenant of artillery, August William Neidhardt, and his wife Maria Eva Neidhardt, née Müller. He grew up in great poverty at Schildau, and subsequently at Würzburg and Erfurt. In 1777 he entered the University of Erfurt, but two years later joined an Austrian regiment quartered there. In 1782, taking the additional name of Gneisenau from some lost estates of his family in Austria, he entered as an officer the service of the Margrave of Bayreuth-Ansbach. With one of that prince's mercenary regiments in British pay, he saw active service and gained valuable experience in the American Revolutionary War. Returning in 1786, he applied for Prussian service, and King Frederick the Great gave him a commission as first lieutenant in the infantry.
Made Stabskapitän (Staff Captain) in 1790, Gneisenau served in Poland from 1793-1794. Ten years of subsequent quiet garrison life in Jauer enabled him to undertake wide ranging studies of military and political history. In 1796 he married Caroline von Kottwitz.
.................
In 1816 Gneisenau was appointed to command the VIII Prussian Corps, but soon retired from the service, both because of ill health and for political reasons.
For two years Gneisenau lived in retirement at his estate, Erdmannsdorf in Silesia, but in 1818 he became governor of Berlin, as successor to Kalckreuth, and member of the Staatsrath (Council of State). In 1825 he was promoted to General Field Marshal. In 1831, soon after the outbreak of the Polish insurrection of 1830, he was appointed to the command of the Army of Observation on the Polish frontier, with Clausewitz as his chief-of-staff. At Posen he was struck down by cholera and died on 24 August 1831, soon followed by his chief-of-staff, who fell a victim to the same disease in November.
..................
 As a soldier, Gneisenau proved the greatest Prussian general since Frederick the Great. As a man, his noble character and virtuous life secured him the affection and reverence not only of his superiors and subordinates in the service, but of the whole Prussian nation. A statue by Christian Daniel Rauch was erected in Berlin in 1855, and in memory of the siege of 1807, the Kolberg grenadier regiment received his name in 1889. One of his sons led a brigade of the VIII Army Corps in the Franco-Prussian War in 1870.
Several German navy ships, including the World War I armored cruiser SMS Gneisenau, the World War II battleship Gneisenau, and a post-war frigate were named after him.
Additionally, several German cities have streets named "Gneisenaustrasse" (Gneisenau Street), including Berlin (which has an U-bahn stop in his name), Leipzig, Hamburg, and Heidelberg.
........."


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 Tuesday, September 04, 2012

President Giorgio von Napolit-Hassel: hanged! 

 http://avlesbeluskesexposed.blogspot.it/2012/09/president-giorgio-von-napolit-hassel.html


Saturday, September 22, 2007

Wlodimir (Vladimir) Ledochowski: Father of Germany's CDU political party 

 http://continuingcounterreformation.blogspot.it/2007/09/wlodimir-vladimir-ledochowski-father-of.html

--------------------------REFERENCES:
 
[Re-edited  08 Sept 2012: I enlarged and painted in red the words "(born von Stosch)". The explanation is to be found in the sequent post of Thursday, September 6, 2012 "The author of 1662 and 1664 EDICT OF TOLERANCE among the ancestors of Ulrich von Hassell"]